The Vert-X 31E series of programmable rotary angle sensors from Novotechnik U.S., Southborough, MA, are touchless magnetic angle sensors with a permanent magnet that can be secured to a rotating shaft with no direct mechanical linkage between the shaft and the measuring system, eliminating wear. Specifications include 31 mm profile, 0° to 360° measurement range, 14-bit resolution, 0.1° or better resolution, and 0.1° max. hysteresis. Eight output options are available: 0.1–10 V, 0.5–4.5 V, 4–20 mA, 10% to 90% power supply, SSI, PWM, incremental, and SPI. There are 5 V (MTBF of 668 yr.) and 24 V (MTBF of 240 yr.) supply models. Ingress protection rating is IP 68 and operating range is -40°C to 85 °C.